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Legal Shape-shifting

On the protection of traditional cultural expressions and crossing the boundaries between copyright, cultural heritage and human rights law

E-book, 566 blz. Pdf met watermerkbeveiliging | Engels
Eleven International Publishing | 1e druk, 2020
ISBN13: 9789089740656
Hoofdrubriek : Juridisch
Eleven International Publishing Pdf met watermerkbeveiliging 1e druk, 2020 9789089740656
Direct te downloaden


Struggles over resources are not new for indigenous peoples. One of the latest arenas for recognition of their rights regards their intangibles, such as the protection of their traditional cultural expressions (TCEs). Most attention for protection from unauthorised use has occurred in the sphere of intellectual property law, notably copyright law. However, both protection arguments and context indicate wider implications of the issue, which include preservation of cultural heritage and exercise and enjoyment of human rights such as the rights to self-determination and participation in cultural life.

This book breaks new ground by pursuing a transdisciplinary approach in support of the argument that the protection of TCEs cannot be viewed as an isolated issue of intellectual property. In addition to copyright law, the extensive analysis also includes the legal frameworks of cultural heritage and human rights law in order to uncover shared central values to guide efforts and approaches to TCE protection in going forward. Operationalisation of the shared central values can guide the process of moving towards a more comprehensive perspective of the protection of TCEs. Hence, the main aim of the book is to demonstrate the strength of looking across the boundaries of legal domains and mandates and to argue the necessity of pursuing a diverse legal and policy response.

With its novel approach and thorough analysis, covering three legal frameworks not usually connected in such an integrated way, the book offers a significant contribution to the field of protection of traditional knowledge and cultural expressions. It is highly relevant for interest groups, scholars, students and professionals in the areas of (international) intellectual property law, cultural heritage and human rights, with a specific focus on cultural rights, the rights of indigenous peoples and heritage.


Aantal pagina's:566


Chapter 1 Introduction, approach and methodology 1
1.1 Introduction: an issue of (the) margins 1
1.1.1 TCEs, threats and trends 4
1.1.2 Transboundary legal protection questions on authorisation, preservation and human rights 5
1.1.3 Answering the research question with a three-way legal and foundational analysis 7
1.2 Challenges and protection interests 8
1.2.1 Indigenous peoples 8
1.2.2 Traditional cultural expressions 9
1.2.3 Protection interests 11
1.3 A systems perspective 12
1.3.1 Unauthorised use and exclusive rights 13
1.3.2 Preservation, maintenance and transmission 14
1.3.3 Heritage and human rights struggles 15
1.3.4 Beyond existing approaches 16
1.3.5 Mapping the legal diversity 17
1.4 Structure and methodology 19
1.4.1 An information law perspective 20
1.4.2 Issues of context and content 21
1.4.3 Three legal perspectives 23
1.5 Outcome and operationalisation 25

Chapter 2 Background, history and protection interests 27
2.1 Introduction: the context and content of the protection of TCEs 27
2.1.1 History 28
Histories of dispossession and indigenous peoples 28
Developments in international law and indigenous peoples 30
The influence of history vis-à-vis TCE protection 35
2.1.2 Power and politics 37
2.1.3 Land claims and cultural expressions 41
2.1.4 Globalisation and technological developments 42
Globalisation 43
Technological developments 47
2.2 TCEs and indigenous peoples: a new chapter in the indigenous rights movement? 51
2.2.1 Copyright context 51
2.2.2 Cultural heritage context 56
2.2.3 Human rights context 61
2.3 Traditional cultural expressions explained 64
2.3.1 A closer look at traditional cultural expressions 64
Holistic 65
Impersonal, traditional and oral 66
Secrecy and sacredness 68
2.3.2 Appropriation issues 69
Cultural appropriation 69
Cultural misappropriation and misrepresentation 71
Commercialisation 75
2.4 Criticisms of TCE protection and countervailing interests 76
2.4.1 The public domain, commons and remix 77
2.4.2 Freedom of (artistic) expression 80
2.4.3 General: protection of TCEs and countervailing interests 83
Copyright law 85
Cultural heritage law 86
Human rights law 88
Customary laws 91
Geographically determined competing interests 92
2.4.4 Conclusion 94
2.5 Protection arguments and interests 94
2.5.1 Categorisation of indigenous peoples’ protection interests 95
2.5.2 Categorisation discourse: approaches in academic literature 98
2.5.3 Economic and development argument 100
History and developments of the argument 100
Examples of protection interests informed by the argument 101
2.5.4 Heritage argument 102
History and developments of the argument 103
Examples of protection interests informed by the argument 103
2.5.5 Human rights argument 106
History and development of the argument 106
Examples of protection interests informed by the argument 107
2.5.6 The hybrid argument 110
2.5.7 Concluding thoughts on categorisation and protection interests 112
2.6 Conclusion 113

Chapter 3 Copyright law and traditional cultural expressions 117
3.1 Introduction: copyright law and TCEs 117
3.1.1 Intellectual property law and TCEs 119
3.1.2 Categorisation of IP subject matter vis-à-vis indigenous heritage 121
3.1.3 A focus on copyright law 123
3.1.4 Indigenous rights and development as a contextual backdrop 125
3.1.5 Nature and subject of protection: diverging perceptions of ownership, property and ‘works’ 128
3.2 Instruments and requirements of international copyright law 131
3.2.1 The BC and UCC: history and development 132
3.2.2 Coloured by complexity: copyright characteristics and
requirements and TCEs 134
Originality 136
Fixation 138
Authorship 139
Transferability and ownership 143
Duration 145
In sum 146
3.2.3 The importance of protection, preservation and promotion 148
Various understandings of protection 148
Defensive protection and TCEs 149
Risk of loss of TCEs: preservation 150
Promotion of TCEs 152
3.3 Traditions, theories and rationales of copyright law 152
3.3.1 Utilitarian tradition and incentive theories 153
Utilitarianism 154
Incentives 156
3.3.2 Natural law tradition, labour, personality and droit d’auteur theories 157
Natural rights and labour 158
Personality and droit d’auteur 159
Moral rights 161
3.3.3 Notions of fairness 162
Distributive justice 163
Misappropriation, misrepresentation and unjust enrichment 165
3.4 Protection interests and theories: a mixed bag 167
3.4.1 Utilitarianism and incentive theories 168
Utilitarianism 168
Incentives 169
3.4.2 Natural rights tradition and labour, personality and droit
d’auteur theories 171
Labour 172
Personality and identity 173
Moral rights 175
3.4.3 Notions of fairness 177
Distributive justice 177
Misappropriation and misrepresentation 179
Unjust enrichment 180
3.4.4 Defensive protection 181
TCEs and ‘cultural privacy’ 183
3.5 Conclusion: from material difficulties to foundational opportunities 184

Chapter 4 Cultural heritage law and traditional cultural expressions 187
4.1 Introduction: cultural heritage law and TCEs 187
4.1.1 A focus on history, concepts and principles 188
4.1.2 Central aspects of cultural heritage and TCEs 189
Heritage as a qualifier 189
Preservation 190
Relationship between communities and cultural heritage 191
Power 193
Land 194
All mankind as beneficiary 195
4.1.3 Cultural heritage law: focus on preservation 198
4.1.4 Cultural heritage and human rights law 198
4.1.5 Cultural heritage law on a deeper level: objectives and rationales 200
4.2 Short introduction to instruments, theories and principles 201
4.2.1 Tangible cultural heritage in armed conflict 202
4.2.2 Movement of tangible cultural heritage 204
4.2.3 Intangible cultural heritage 205
4.2.4 Cultural heritage and cultural diversity 207
4.3 Cultural heritage protection: developments and instruments 208
4.3.1 Cultural heritage in armed conflict 210
Early regulations 210
Context and objectives of the 1954 The Hague Convention 212
Cultural heritage: a general standard of understanding 214
Measures: safeguarding and respect 214
Other measures: use of an emblem and sanctions 215
Main principles of the 1954 The Hague Convention and TCEs 216
4.3.2 Cultural heritage and illicit trade 216
Preliminary developments: 1956 and 1964 Recommendations 217
Context and objectives of the 1970 Convention 218
Cultural heritage: categories of tangible cultural property 220
Measures against illicit trade 221
Main principles of the 1970 Convention and TCEs 222
4.3.3 Cultural heritage, restitution and return 222
Context of the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention 223
Objectives, scope and definitions 225
Measures: restitution and return 226
Main principles of the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention and TCEs 227
4.3.4 Cultural heritage as world heritage 228
Context and objectives of the 1972 World Heritage Convention 228
Definitions and scope 230
Measures: national and international protection 231
Other measures: the World Heritage List, awareness raising and education 232
Main principles of the 1972 World Heritage Convention and
TCEs 233
4.3.5 Towards protection of intangible cultural heritage 234
Copyright and folklore: preliminary developments to the 2003 Convention 234
A Recommendation on folklore as a first step 236
Context, objectives and definitions of the 2003 ICH Convention 238
Measures: national inventories, education and awareness raising 240
Measures: safeguarding at the international level 242
Main principles of the 2003 Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention and TCEs 243
4.3.6 Cultural heritage and cultural diversity 244
Context and preliminary developments 245
Objectives and definitions of the 2005 Cultural Diversity Convention 247
Measures to protect and promote the diversity of cultural expressions 250
Main principles of the 2005 Cultural Diversity Convention and TCEs 251
4.4 The shifts in cultural heritage law: protection theories and principles 252
4.4.1 Cultural heritage measures and TCEs 254
Safeguarding and respect – Positive and negative measures 255
Raising awareness I – Emblems, lists and designations 256
Raising awareness II – Education, information and knowledge 257
4.4.2 Protection for the benefit of all mankind vis-à-vis source communities 258
Benefit of all mankind 258
4.4.3 Roles in identity construction, cultural contexts and living cultures 260
Identity construction 260
Cultural context and living culture 261
4.4.4 Preserving cultural diversity, inheritances, cultural contexts and living cultures 263
Cultural diversity 263
Transmission to future generations 265
Cultural context and living culture 266
4.4.5 A cultural heritage law analysis of TCE protection 267
4.5 Conclusion: from static cultural heritage law to inclusiveness 268
Chapter 5 Human rights law and traditional cultural expressions 271
5.1 Introduction: human rights law and TCEs 271
5.1.1 The context of human rights and TCEs 272
5.1.2 Focus on cultural and indigenous rights 276
5.1.3 Human rights obligations and TCEs: respect, protect, fulfil 278
5.2 International human rights law, cultural rights and indigenous rights 281
5.2.1 International human rights law 281
5.2.2 Cultural rights 284
What is culture? 285
Culture as a qualifier of rights and narrow versus broad views 287
Is there a right to culture and other criticisms of cultural rights 290
5.2.3 Indigenous rights 293
Indigenous rights developments 293
Definitions of ‘indigenous peoples’ 297
Indigenous rights and narrow versus broad views 300
Criticisms of indigenous rights 301
5.2.4 The tension between group rights and individual rights 303
5.3 Cultural rights, indigenous rights and guiding principles 306
5.3.1 Short introduction to the international human rights system 307
5.3.2 Self-determination 311
Self-determination as a framework right 312
Self-determination, natural resources and cultural rights 313
The collective dimension of the right to self-determination 314
Self-determination and TCEs 315
5.3.3 Equality and non-discrimination 316
The accessory character of non-discrimination 317
Non-discrimination and indigenous peoples: land rights and cultural characteristics 318
Equality and non-discrimination and TCEs 319
5.3.4 Freedom of expression 321
Freedom of expression theories 321
The enabling nature of the right to freedom of expression 325
Indigenous peoples and freedom of expression, participation and minority rights 326
Cultural diversity, the media and freedom of expression 328
Freedom of expression and TCEs 334
5.3.5 Property and land 335
The right to property, its framework character and reversed enabling nature 335
Property, land and cultural rights 337
Indigenous peoples and intellectual property 338
Property and TCEs 339
5.3.6 Participation 340
Procedural participation 341
Participation in cultural life 349
Participation and TCEs 353
5.3.7 Minority rights 354
Article 27 ICCPR as a framework right and recognition of indigenous peoples 356
Minority rights and TCEs 357
5.3.8 Cultural integrity, dignity and identity 357
Non-discrimination, existence and cultural integrity, dignity and identity 360
Cultural integrity and dignity and TCEs 361
5.4 TCEs and cultural and indigenous rights: objectives, principles and underlying values 362
Recap: the normative framework of cultural and indigenous rights 363
5.4.1 Self-determination 364
5.4.2 Non-discrimination 367
5.4.3 Participation: practice, continuation and existence 370
5.4.4 Dignity 374
5.5 Conclusion: from assimilationist exclusion to inclusive principle-based protection arguments 376

Chapter 6 Beyond the existing legal tripartite: Legal and practical solutions 379
6.1 Introduction: extra-legal and practical approaches 379
6.2 WIPO’s sui generis efforts 380
6.2.1 The development of sui generis rules 381
Fact-Finding and gaps 383
Claims, rights and regulatory difficulties: towards a sui generis regime 395
6.2.2 Objectives and principles: multidimensional and cross-cutting 396
Revised Objectives 396
General Guiding Principles 397
Preambular principles and objectives of the Draft Articles 398
6.2.3 Content of the specialised rules: an analysis 401
Subject matter I: use of terms 402
Subject matter II: protection/eligibility criteria 403
Beneficiaries and administration of rights: communities, states, agencies 405
Scope of protection: a distinction between ‘types’ of TCEs 408
Exceptions and limitations: checks and balances 413
Duration: an indigenous dimension 416
Sanctions, transboundary cooperation and awareness-raising 417
6.2.4 Focus of protection: outcome rather than process 418
6.2.5 An international approach? 419
Process 422
6.3 Grass-roots, local and practical initiatives 423
6.3.1 Purposes and place in the system 423
6.3.2 Labels 425
Geographical indications 427
Practical example: the Local Contexts project 428
6.3.3 Licences as illustrated by the Mukurtu and Local Contexts
initiatives 430
A closer look at the licences for documentation and recording 431
Licences and TCE protection concerns 432
6.3.4 Protocols and codes of ethics 432
6.4 Concluding thoughts on TCE protection and legal and practical solutions 437

Chapter 7 Synthesis: What have we learned? 439
7.1 Introduction: from fragmentation to value-based convergence 439
7.1.1 The multidimensionality of indigenous protection interests 441
7.1.2 The legal framework: TCE relevance and underlying principles 442
Copyright law and TCEs 443
Cultural heritage law and TCEs 444
Human rights law and TCEs 447
7.1.3 From disparate rules to principles and shared central values: a systems perspective 450
7.2 Shared central values of the existing legal framework and TCEs 451
7.2.1 Dignity and identity 454
7.2.2 Respect 456
7.2.3 Participation and democratisation of the discourse 458
Criticisms of state-centredness 461
7.3 Shared central values, legal and practical solutions and TCEs 463
7.3.1 Connecting the shared central values and a sui generis approach 463
Dignity and identity 463
Respect 464
Participation and democratisation of the discourse 466
To sum up 469
7.3.2 Connecting the shared central values and (practical) solutions 471
Dignity and identity 471
Respect 472
Participation and democratisation of the discourse 472
To sum up 473
7.4 State obligations and legal interconnections 473
7.4.1 Obligations in an intellectual property and trade context 474
7.4.2 Obligations with regard to cultural heritage 477
7.4.3 Obligations and an indigenous dimension of human rights 479
7.5 Concluding thoughts on TCE protection and shared central values 480
Operative values 481
‘Fragmentation’ and inclusion 481

Chapter 8 Conclusions and recommendations 483
8.1 Introduction: closing the circle 483
8.2 Protection interests and approach: less is not more 484
8.3 TCE protection: a legal tripartite and one set of shared central values 486
8.4 State obligations and a human rights law basis: connecting the three legal domains 488
8.5 Answer to the research question 490
8.6 Recommendations: closing the circle 492

Bibliography 505

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