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Climate Litigation

Cases and Materials

Specificaties
Paperback, 609 blz. | Engels
Eleven International Publishing | 1e druk, 2022
ISBN13: 9789462363267
Rubricering
Hoofdrubriek : Juridisch
Jongbloed : Omgevingsrecht
Eleven International Publishing 1e druk, 2022 9789462363267
Op werkdagen voor 23:00 uur besteld, volgende dag in huis

Samenvatting

Climate change poses tremendous legal challenges. The law is still largely unsettled. Seeing the global consequences of GHG emissions, many enterprises may face litigation before courts in multiple jurisdictions. The outcome of these cases is often hard to predict. It is in the best interest of humankind and the environment to create global obligations, for instance in the form of concrete obligations of States and enterprises, which can be applied by courts around the globe. Using a myriad of legal sources as a basis, this book explores recurring legal features and remedies in the context of climate litigation. It explores the advantages and disadvantages of specific choices, while recognizing that there are often no self-explanatory answers. The lessons drawn are applied to hypothetical future cases.

Climate Litigation in a Changing World provides a basis for well-reasoned choices about measures that could, and will likely have to be, effectuated. Taking insufficient measures may give rise to liability. A keen understanding of these issues is vital for legal advisors, investors, NGO’s, businesses and prospective lawyers to anticipate future legal developments.

With thanks to Bastiaan Kock for his valued contribution and assistance in the creation of this book.

Climate Litigation in a Changing World is distinctive and distinguished. Distinctive because there is no other book currently available that has the coverage and content of this book. It makes an innovative and important contribution to the literature on climate law. Distinguished because of its academic excellence. It is a thoughtful and scholarly explication and analysis of the climate change crisis and its legal solutions. - The Hon Justice Brian Preston, Chief Judge of the Land and Environment Court of New South Wales

Specificaties

ISBN13:9789462363267
Taal:Engels
Bindwijze:paperback
Aantal pagina's:609
Druk:1
Verschijningsdatum:23-12-2022
ISSN:
Jongbloed:Omgevingsrecht

Inhoudsopgave

Foreword xv
Preface xvii

Part A Key issues
I Introduction 3

II The key features of climate change 7
2.0 Introduction 7
2.1 Climate change caused by GHGs 8
2.2 Anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic GHGs 10
2.3 The “desirable” upper limit of global warming 11
2.4 1.5°C: Fiction or still within reach? 12
2.5 Adverse consequences of climate change 18
2.6 A stalemate 24
2.7 A myriad of options to stem the tide 25

III The precautionary principle 27
3.0 Introduction 27
3.1 Certainty in the realm of climate change and its adverse consequences 29
3.2 Uncertainties in the realm of climate change 30
3.3 The importance of the IPCC findings 32
3.4 A serious threat of irreversible harm 32
3.5 Balancing the risks and the costs of taking measures 33
3.6 Unachievable measures 35
3.7 Acceptability 35
3.8 Reductions and other measures 37
3.8.1 The globally required reductions 38
3.8.2 Reduction obligations of States and enterprises 39
3.8.3 Other measures 42

IV Attribution of GHG emissions 43
4.0 Introduction 43
4.1 States 43
4.2 Enterprises 45

V Legal bases of climate obligations 49
5.0 Introduction 49
5.1 International law 52
5.2 The Paris Agreement 53
5.2.1 Obligations of States 53
5.2.2 Obligations of enterprises 57
5.3 Human rights 59
5.3.1 Introduction 59
5.3.2 Human rights: obligations of States 62
5.3.3 Human rights of enterprises 80
5.3.4 Case law 82
5.3.5 Authoritative reports 88
5.3.6 Procedural obligations 102
5.3.7 A caveat 103
5.4 Tort law 103
5.4.1 Introduction 103
5.4.2 Reduction of emissions 105
5.4.2.1 Introduction 105
5.4.2.2 Three important judgments 106
5.4.2.2.1 Mileudefensie v. Shell 106
5.4.2.2.2 The District Court’s Urgenda judgment 107
5.4.2.2.3 Smith v. Fonterra 115
5.4.2.3 A clash between a desirable outcome and the limits of judicial manoeuvring room 128
5.4.3 The reasonable person: balancing acts 130
5.4.4 Proximity 131
5.4.5 Extra-territorial reach of climate obligations 132
5.4.6 Foreseeability of the alleged damage 136
5.4.7 Whose negligence? 137
5.4.8 Minimal contribution 137
5.4.9 Acting in accordance with statutory and regulatory requirements 138
5.4.10 Ripple effects on liability for damages 140
5.4.11 Tort law: breaking new ground? 142
5.4.12 Other climate obligations 146
5.4.12.1 Warnings/information about the carbon footprint 146
5.4.12.2 Putting fossil fuels on the market 146
5.4.12.3 Obligation to refrain from approving extension of a coal mine 151
5.4.12.4 A myriad of other obligations 152
5.5 Do pledges to reduce GHG emissions have legal consequences? 152
5.5.1 Introduction 152
5.5.2 Countless pledges 153
5.5.3 Not all pledges can be lumped together 155
5.5.4 Do pledges create obligations? 155
5.5.5 Ambitious pledges 159
5.5.6 Reasonable reliance 160
5.5.7 Pledges without reliance 160
5.5.8 Affordability 161
5.5.9 Conclusion 162
5.6 Breaking new ground: challenging legal concepts 162
5.6.1 Introduction 162
5.6.2 Obligations towards future generations 165
5.6.2.1 Introduction 165
5.6.2.2 How many future generations? 168
5.6.2.3 Examples 171
5.6.2.3.1 Reduction obligations 171
5.6.2.3.2 New coal mines 172
5.6.2.3.3 Expanding cement factory 173
5.6.2.3.4 New runways 174
5.6.2.3.5 Deforestation 176
5.6.2.3.6 Carbon storage 177
5.6.3 A right to a clean and healthy environment 178
5.6.3.1 Introduction 178
5.6.3.2 A vague and undetermined concept 183
5.6.3.3 Balancing acts 185
5.6.4 A right to a stable climate 188
5.6.5 Rights of Mother Earth/Nature 190
5.6.6 Conclusion 195
5.7 Determining climate obligations: a global perspective 196
5.7.1 Introduction 196
5.7.2 A blueprint of global obligations 198
5.7.3 Reduction of GHG emissions 200
5.7.3.1 Introduction 200
5.7.3.2 Balancing interests 202
5.7.3.3 Precautionary principle 204
5.7.3.4 1.5°C or something else? 204
5.7.3.5 The carbon budget 205
5.7.3.6 Principle of progression and the need to reflect highest possible ambition 205
5.7.3.7 Anticipation of non-compliance 207
5.7.4 Other climate obligations 208
5.7.5 Case by case solutions 208
5.7.6 A blessing in disguise? 210
5.7.7 A blueprint of global climate responsibilities 210

VI Remedies 213
6.0 Introduction 213
6.1 Access to justice 214
6.2 Remedies against States 216
6.3 Remedies against enterprises 219
6.4 Injunctive relief 222
6.4.1 Introduction 222
6.4.2 Minimum causation 225
6.4.3 Challenges to formulate the relief 231
6.4.4 Achievability of the relief 233
6.5 Declaratory relief 234
6.6 Damages 234
6.6.1 Introduction 234
6.6.2 The Paris Agreement 235
6.6.3 The meaning of “remediation” 240
6.6.4 Condicio sine qua non 242
6.6.4.1 Introduction 242
6.6.4.2 Condicio sine qua non 243
6.6.4.3 Condicio sine qua non: complexity challenges 248
6.6.4.4 Complexity and fault liability 252
6.6.4.5 Complexity and strict liability 252
6.6.4.6 Joint and several liability or several liability? 253
6.6.4.7 Conclusion 254
6.6.5 Harm required 254
6.6.6 Keeping the floodgates shut? 254
6.6.6.1 The scope of liability: the sky as the limit? 254
6.6.6.2 Legal techniques to keep the floodgates shut 255
6.6.6.2.1 Restrictions in space or time 255
6.6.6.2.2 Which losses? 256
6.6.6.2.3 Adaptation 258
6.6.6.2.4 Which victims? 263
6.6.6.2.5 Policy choices 264
6.6.6.2.6 A judgment of Solomon? 269
6.6.6.2.7 Contributory negligence 273
6.7 Ecocide 274

VII Responsibility for historical emissions 275
7.0 Introduction 275
7.1 Knowledge is the keyword 276
7.1.1 Introduction 276
7.1.2 Increasing knowledge 277
7.1.3 An undeniable reality 278
7.1.4 The new millennium: increasing worries 281
7.1.5 Knowledge does not suffice 283
7.1.6 States 283
7.1.6.1 Before 1990 283
7.1.6.2 1992 until Kyoto Protocol 284
7.1.6.3 Kyoto Protocol, the Doha Amendment and the Paris Agreement 284
7.1.7 Enterprises 285
7.1.7.1 Pre Kyoto Protocol 285
7.1.7.2 Kyoto Protocol and enterprises 286
7.1.7.3 Post Kyoto Protocol developments 287
7.2 Reductions do not suffice 288
7.3 Setting the bar too high could be counter-productive 288

VIII Role of courts 289
8.0 Introduction 289
8.1 Hopeful messages 291
8.2 An impending turn of the tide? 295
8.3 The demarcation lines between the three pillars of the trias politica 299
8.3.1 Introduction 299
8.3.2 Case law 300
8.3.3 Conclusion 315

IX Litigation 317
9.0 Difficult choices for plaintiffs 317
9.1 Ill-considered claims? 318
9.2 Class action 319
9.2.1 Introduction 319
9.2.2 Class action the panacea? 320
9.2.3 Class actions counter-productive? 324
9.2.4 The IBA Model Statute on standing 328
9.3 A caveat 329

Part B Cases and hypotheticals
Real and hypothetical cases 333
B.1 Introduction 333
B.2 General issues 333
B.3 Cases and hypotheticals 333
B.4 States and enterprises 334
B.5 Minimal contribution, condicio sine qua non,standing and the political argument 336
B.6 Precautionary principle 337
B.7 GHGs or “only” CO2 emissions 337
B.8 A focus on judgments and authoritative reports 338
B.9 Climate-related litigation: a booming business 338
B.10 Determinants of the outcome of judgments 338
B.11 A jump to a preferred outcome? 339
B.11.1 Introduction 339
B.11.2 The Urgenda judgment 345
B.11.3 Khan Cement Company v. Government of Punjab 345
B.11.4 Oxfam et al. v. France 346
B.11.5 Milieudefensie v. Shell 347
B.11.6 Nature and Youth Norway, Greenpeace Nordic et al. v. Norway 348
B.11.7 Ione Teitiota v. New Zealand 351
B.11.8 Conclusion 352
B.12 Telling the fortunes 354
B.13 A broader focus 355

Case 1 (reduction obligation of States) 357
1 Introduction 357
2 Key issues 358
3 National or regional legal instruments and case law concerning reduction obligations 361
4 Kyoto Protocol 365
5 Paris Agreement 366
5.1 Introduction 366
5.2 NDCs 366
5.3 The 1.5°C goal 373
5.4 If not 1.5°C: which alternative threshold? 376
5.5 Interim conclusion concerning 1.5°C 377
6 Human rights 377
6.1 Introduction 377
6.2 More if possible? 384
6.3 Less if convenient? 384
6.4 Territorial reach of human rights 385
7 Tort law 385
8 Oslo Principles 385
9 Redistribution of non-achieved reductions? 387
10 Conclusion 388

Case 2 (reduction obligation of enterprises) 391
1 Introduction 391
2 Scope 1 emissions 392
3 A political issue? 393
4 National or regional legal instruments 393
5 The Paris Agreement 393
6 Human rights 395
7 Tort law 398
8 Enterprises Principles 398
9 Science based targets 403
10 Disposal of part of the business 404
11 Conclusion 406

Case 3 (scope 3 emissions, fossil fuels) 407
1 Introduction 407
2 Human rights and tort law 410
3 The challenges posed by principles 415
3.1 UN Guiding Principles 415
3.2 Options to give teeth to the UN Guiding Principles 420
3.3 The usefulness of an obligation to reduce WE’s scope 3 emissions 423
3.4 Who has to bear the brunt? 425
4 OECD Guidelines 426
5 Global Compact 429
6 OEIGWG draft and other authoritative reports 431
7 Enterprises Principles 431
8 Science Based Targets 435
9 Oxford Martin Principles for Climate-Conscious Investment 436
10 Greenhouse Gas Protocol 438
11 The UNFCCC race to zero initiative 438
12 Due diligence rules 439
13 Impact assessments 444
14 Scope 3 reductions of the entire group of companies 444
15 Conclusion 446
16 A caveat 447

Case 4 (products) 449
1 Introduction 449
2 A special regime for luxury products with a high carbon footprint? 449
3 Transition towards net zero cars 451
4 Pending cases 453
5 Luxury and excessive: a broader perspective 454
6 The fluid line between scope 1 and 3 456
7 A potential clash of human rights 456
8 A caveat 456
9 Conclusion 458

Case 5 (retailers) 459
1 Introduction 459
2 The food sector: a new target 459
3 Corporate pledges 461
4 Enterprises Principles 461
5 UN Guiding Principles 462
6 Good practice 464
7 An obligation on its own right 466
8 Lobbying 468
9 A caveat 468
10 A broader perspective 468

Case 6 (lobbying, subsidies) 471
1 Introduction 471
2 The relief under (a) 472
3 The relief under (b) 475
4 A broader perspective 477

Case 7 (impact assessment, permits) 479
1 Introduction 479
2 Gas projects 480
3 Oil projects 486
4 Coal projects 496
5 Rights of nature 497
6 Analysis 498
7 The relief under (b) 500
7.1 Introduction 500
7.2 Case law 501
7.3 Analysis 503

Case 8 (human rights compliance) 505
1 Introduction 505
2 Obligations of States to ensure compliance with human rights 506
3 Which human rights? 508
4 What do human rights require from the corporate sector? 509
5 Et ceterum censeo Carthaginem delendam esse 510

Case 9 (investments) 513
1 Introduction 513
2 Sovereign debt 513
3 Investors and human rights 515
4 Possible other legal bases 516
5 Cases 518
6 Conclusion 522

Case 10 (damages) 525
1 Introduction 525
2 Time limitation 526
3 States and enterprises 527
4 Only unlawful emissions count 527
5 Unlawful emissions 528
6 Historical emissions 529
7 Condicio sine qua non 531
8 Minimum causation 532
9 The Loss and Damage Mechanism 532
10 The sky as the limit? 532
11 Building dikes 534
12 Relocation of indigenous communities and impaired cultural relics 536
13 Drop of tourism 540
14 Ecological loss that cannot be remedied in situ 541
15 Exploding liability? 545
16 Global solutions? 546

Case 11 (gap filling) 549
1 Why is gap filling necessary? 549
2 How to calculate the gap? 549
3 A legal obligation? 550
4 Unfair? 551
5 Mission impossible? 552
6 Recourse on laggards 552

Case 12 (disclosure) 555
1 Introduction 555
2 Material information 556
3 A legal obligation to provide information about compliance and potential liability? 557
4 Disclosure comes at a cost 561

Epilogue 563
References 565

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